我们在汉语写作中经常为了润色而使用各种修辞，让我们的文章更加生动有趣。同样，在英语的写作中修辞（figure of speech）也是非常值得学习的一项技能，更是英专的必修内容！今天我们就简单介绍几个常用的修辞手法~
修辞手法（figure of speech）修辞手法是通过修饰、调整语句，运用特定的表达形式以提高语言表达作用的方式和方法。修辞不仅仅在中文里很常见，在英文里也是多种多样。这篇文章里，我们就来谈一谈英文中常见的修辞手法。
通篇文案编辑皆为手动码字，文章主体内容为英文原著《Three Men in a Boat》的摘录，开篇单词表和文末感想为原创，欢迎转载，必须标明来源。
1。 Simile 明喻
Three men in a boat
Have you asked yourbrother to do the dishes?
A simile is a figure of speech in which two fundamentally unlike things are explicitly compared， usually in a phrase introduced by like or as。
As a person who loves reading books and records each drop of idea. I always think about to share my reading notes with you, and there is no orginal English book with clearly Vocabulary List, so I want to do a thing, to write down some articles with my thought, ideas, and my way of reading.
1)Yes, many times。(很多遍了。)
标志词常用 like， as， seem， as if， as though， similar to， such as等。
2)Yes, a thousand times。(无数次了。)
Lock /lɒk/: a part of a canal or river that is closed off by gates so that the water level can be raised or lowered to move boats up or down a slope.
We began to think that we were right and that someone had moved the lock.*
Slope /sləʊp/: the angle at which something slopes in relation to a flat surface.
A slope of 30 degrees.*
Knock over: to hit someone with a vehicle while you are driving, so that they are hurt.
He fought the cover hard and knocked George over.
Cover /ˈkʌvə/: shelter or protection from bad weather or attack.
It's better to put the cover on the boat first, before it gets too dark.*
很明显，第一种回答方式不如第二种生动，因为athousand times(无数次)使用了Hyperbole(夸张)的修辞手法。Hyperbole一词源于希腊语的huperbole，意思是exceed(超过)，是一种故意夸大其词(overstatement)或言过其实的修辞手法；其特点是对表达对象进行有违常识或不合逻辑的夸张性描写，以达到强烈的修辞效果。如：ariver of tears (泪河)、a mountainof coal (煤山)、oceans of people (人海).。。
Good coffee is like friendship： rich and warm and strong。
1）。 He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow。
Chapter 9 : Our First Night On The Boat
After some time, Harris and I began to think that Bell Weir lock had disappeared.
'Perhaps someone has taken it away,' we said. George had towed the boat as far as Staines, and we had towed it from there. It seemed to get heavier and heavier. We began to think that we were right and that someone had moved the lock.
Finally, at half past seven, we reached it and got through it. By now we just wanted to eat and to go to bed. So we stopped before we reached Magna Charta Island. It was quite a pretty place and we tied our boat to a big tree.
We were looking forward to having something to eat then, but George said, 'No! It's better to put the cover on the boat first, before it gets too dark. All our work will be finished then. We'll be able to sit down and enjoy our meal.'
None of us had realized that it would be so difficult to fix the cover. There were five pieces of metal and you put these into special holes on the side of the boat. The pieces of metal were half circled, and when you had put them into the holes, you just had to pull the cover over them.
We thought it would probably take about ten minutes.
We were wrong.
We took the pieces of metal, and we began to drop them into their holes. You would not expect this to be dangerous work, but it was.
First of all, the pieces of metal would not fit into their holes. We had to jump on them, and kick them, and beat them. When we got one in, we found that it was the wrong piece of metal for those holes. So we had to take it out again.
At last we got them finished. Then we only had to put the cover on. George took one end, and he fastened it over the front of the boat. Harris stood in the middle of the boat to take the cover from George. I stayed at the back of the boat to take the end of the cover from Harris.
George did his job all right, but it was a new work to Harris and he did everything wrong.
I do not know how he did it, and Harris himslef couldn't explain it later. After ten minutes of really hard work, he was inside the cover. He could not get out. He fought the cover hard and knocked George over. Then George got angry and he began to fight, too. George could not get out of the cover either.
At the time, I didn't know anything about all this. I didn't understand what was happening anyway. They had told Montmorency and me to stand and wait. So Montmorency and I stood there and waited. We could see that the cover was moving about quite violently. However, we thought that it was all necessary for the job. We did nothing because they had told us to wait.
We also heard many bad words coming from under the cover. Montmorency and I decided that this was because the job was very difficult.
We waited for some time, but everything seemed to get worse. Finally George's head appeared over the side of the boat. It said, 'We can't breathe under here! Why don't you help us, you great stupid thing!'
So I went and helped them. Harris's face was nearly black, so I was just in time.
It took another half an hour after that to fix the cover. And then we started to prepare supper. We needed some hot water to make tea, so we put the water on the stove at the front of the boat, and we went to the back. We pretended that we were not interested in the water at all. We wanted it to think we didn't care if it got hot or not. We began to get the other things out.
That's the only way to get hot water on the river. If the water knows that you are waiting for it, it will never get hot. You have to go away and begin your meal without it. You must not look at it. Then you will soon hear it making a lot of noise, because it wants to be made into sea.
It's also a good idea to talk very loudly to each other. You must say that you don't want any tea, that you don't need any tea, and that you aren't going to have any tea. You get very near the water and you shout, 'I don't want any tea, do you, George?'
And George shouts back, 'Oh, no. I don't like tea, we will have milk.'
This makes the water very angry, and it gets hot very fast.
We did this, and, when everything else was ready, the tea was ready too. Then we sat down to have supper, we really wanted that supper, we needed that supper. And for thirty-five minutes nobody on the boat spoke.
After supper, we sat and smiled at each other. We smiled at Montmorency, too. We loved everybody, we sat back, we lit our pipes, and we began to talk.
George told us about something very funny that happened to his father once...
When he was young, George's father was travelling with a friend. One night they stopped at a little hotel. They spent the evening there with some other young men. After a very happy evening they went to bed. It was late, and by that time, they(George's father and George's father's friend) were feeling quite happy themselves. Anyway, they were going to sleep in the same room, but in different beds. When they got into the room, they dropped their light, which went out, so they had to undress and get into bed in the dark. They thought they were getting into separate beds. However, because they could not see, they both got into the same one. One of them got in with his head at the top of the bed. The other one got in on the other side of the bed, he lay with his feet by the first one's head.
Nobody spoke for a moment, then George's father said, 'Joe!'
'What's the matter, Tom?' Joe replied, from the other end of the bed.
'Why, there's a man in my bed,' George's father said, 'His feet are here, next to me.'
'Well, that's very strange, Tom,' Joe answered, 'but there's a man in my bed, too.'
'What are you going to do?' George's father asked.
'Well, I'm going to throw him out,' Joe replied.
'So am I,' George's father said, bravely.
There was a short fight, and then there were two heavy bangs on the floor. After a moment or two, a rather sad voice said, 'I say, Tom!'
'How have you got on?'
'Well, to tell the truth, my man's thrown me out.'
'My man's thrown me out, too... I say, this isn't a very good hotel, is it?'...
At the end of George's story, Harris asked, 'What was the name of the hotel?'
'The Riverside,' George replied, 'Why?'
'Ah, it isn't the same hotel, then.' Harris answered.
'What do you mean?' George asked.
'Well, it's strange,' Harris said, 'but the same thing happened to my father once, I've often heard him tell the story.'
After that, we went to bed, but I slept very badly.
Finally they went to a beautiful island, Magna Charta Island. Before they got out of the boat, they tried to put the cover on the boat, then you will see so many details while they are making the cover. After they have done it, they collected the water and heat it, and to make food. During the time, George shared a story about his father. At the end of the story, Harris shared a detil about his father.
2）。 I wandered lonely as a cloud。
Life is rather like opening a tin of sardines。 We‘re all of us looking for the key。
3）。 Einstein only had a blanket on， as if he had just walked out of a fairy tale。
1)You are my lifesaver。(你是我的“救命恩人”。)
2。 Metaphor 隐喻，暗喻
2)You are 100% right。(你“百分之百”的正确。)
He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen from him to crow。
3)My back killed me。(我的腰痛的厉害。)
4)You make me feel guilty。(你让我感觉像是在犯罪。)
1）。 Hope is a good breakfast， but it is a bad supper。
5)I haven't seen you forages. (好久不见了呀！)
A metaphor is a trope or figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something in common。
2）。 Some books are to be tasted， others swallowed， and some few to be chewed and digested。
6)I could sleep for awhole year. (我太困了。)
3。 Metonymy 借喻，转喻
7)We're all tired todeath. (我们快累死了。)
Humor is the shock absorber of life； it helps us take action。
1)One father is more thana hundred schoolmasters. (George Herbert) (一个父亲的作用大于100个教师。)
1）。The kettle boils。
2)It's a crime to stayinside on such a beautiful day. (今天阳光明媚，躲在家中实在太遗憾了。)
Time， you thief。
3)A drop of ink may make amillion think。(George G Byron)(一滴墨水写成的文字可让千万人思索。)
2）。The room sat silent。
But my heart is a lonely hunter that hunts on a lonely hill。
1)He spent a lot ofmoney。(他花了大笔的钱。)
Lend me your ears， please。
2)He spent a lot of money,like water。(他花钱如流水。)
Personifiation is a figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstraction is endowed with human qualities or abilities。
很明显，第二种表达方式比第一种更加生动和形象。因为like water(如流水)使用了Simile(明喻)的修辞手法，这样以来，无疑使语言更加精彩和完美，听力考试也不再单纯是一门考试，而变成了一种享受。Simile(明喻)一词源于拉丁语similes,其意为like(象)。他借助人们的想象力，使用一定的比喻词如：like, as等加以连接，从而清楚的表明两种事物之间的相似之处，使得表达更加新鲜有趣。其典型形式是A is like B。
Oreo： Milk’s favorite cookie。
a complete Shakespeare 莎士比亚全集
The wind stood up and gave a shout。
I had the muscle， and they made money out of it。
The only monster here is the gambling monster that has enslaved your mother！ I call him Gamblor， and it‘s time to snatch your mother from his neon claws！
4。 Synecdoche 提喻
Euphemism is the substitution of an inoffensive expression for one considered offensively explicit
1）。 There are about 100 hands working in his factory。
2）。 He is the Newton of this century。
elder citizen老年人（不用old people）
3）。 The fox goes very well with your cap。
You‘ve got a prime figure。你的体态丰腴。（不用fat）
5。 Synaesthesia 通感，联觉，移觉
A pun is a play on words， either on different senses of the same word or on the similar sense or sound of different words。
1）The birds sat upon a tree and poured forth their lily like voice。
2）Taste the music of Mozart。
6。 Personification 拟人
1）The night gently lays her hand at our fevered heads。
Alliteration is the repetition of an initial consonant sound。
2）I was very happy and could hear the birds singing in the woods。
头韵是英语语音修辞的一种，体现了语言的音乐美和整齐美。广为熟知的一本名著《傲慢与偏见》（Pride and Prejudice）的书名就体现了头韵。常见的例子还有：
first and foremost首先
7。 Hyperbole 夸张
with might and main 尽全力地
saints and sinners 圣人与罪人
in weal and （or） woe无论是福是祸
1）I beg a thousand pardons。
2）Love you。 You are the whole world to me， and the moon and the stars。
Oxymoron is a figure of speech in which incongruous or contradictory terms appear side by side。
3）When she heard the bad news， a river of tears poured out。
8。 Parallelism 排比，平行
1）No one can be perfectly free till all are free； no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral； no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy。
2）In the days when all these things are to be answered for， I summon you and yours， to the last of your bad race， to answer for them。 In the days when all these things are to be answered for， I summon your brother， the worst of your bad race， to answer for them separately。
9。 Euphemism 委婉，婉辞法
We have to believe in free will。 We have no choice。
His honour rooted in dishonour stood。
1）He is out visiting the necessary。 他出去方便一下。
2）His relation with his wife has not been fortunate。 他与妻子关系不融洽。
3）My mother passed away in 1997。 （去世）
Hyperbole is a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect； an extravagant statement。
I was scared to death
You are the whole world to me， and the moon and the stars…。