本次考试试题来源于Mayo W. Hazeltine所写的一篇学术评论，主题是关于达尔文在现代科学中的地位。
People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not,or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.
In his autobiography，Darwin himself speaks of his intellectual powers with extraordinary modesty. He points out that he always experienced much difficulty in expressing himself clearly and concisely, but 46 he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations, He disclaimed the possession of any great quickness of apprehension or wit, such as distinguished Huxley. 47 He asserts, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics. His memory, too, he described as extensive, but hazy. So poor in one sense was it that he never could remember for more than a few days a single date or a line of poetry. 48 On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning.
Social scientists are,of course,extremely interested in these types of questions. (61) They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet,but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect,the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as “nature vs. nurture.”
This, he thought, could not be true, because the "Origin of Species" is one long argument from the beginning to the end, and has convinced many able men. No one, he submits, could have written it without possessing some power of reasoning. He was willing to assert that "I have a fair share of invention, and of common sense or judgment, such as every fairly successful lawyer or doctor must have, but not, I believe, in any higher degree."49 He adds humbly that perhaps he was "superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully."
A Pending Threat to Patents
(62) Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (63) That our environment has little,if anything,to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.
Writing in the last year of his life, he expressed the opinion that in two or three respects his mind had changed during the preceding twenty or thirty years. Up to the age of thirty or beyond it poetry of many kinds gave him great pleasure. Formerly, too, pictures had given him considerable, and music very great, delight. In 1881, however, he said: "Now for many years I cannot endure to read a line of poetry; I have tried lately to read Shakspeare, and found it so intolerably dull that it nauseated me. I have also almost lost my taste for pictures or music. Music generally sets me thinking too energetically of what I have been at work on, instead of giving me pleasure. I retain some taste for fine scenery, but it does not cause me the exquisite delight which it formerly did." 50 Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character.
by Michael Orey
Behaviorists, in contrast, say
Taken to an extreme,this theory maintains that our behavior is pre-determined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.
Business Week February 21, 2008
that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprivedof many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whitesenjoy. (1990年65题)
Those who support the “nurture” theory,that is,they advocate education,are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist,B. F. Skinner,sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings.
46 he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations,
Over the past decade, thousands of patents have been granted for what are called business methods. Amazon.com (AMZN) received one for its "one-click" online payment system. Merrill Lynch (MER) got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy. One inventor patented a technique for lifting a box。
(64) The behaviorists maintain that,like machines,humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.
Now the nation's top patent court appears poised to scale back on business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago (第二十六题 D答案对 the controversy over authorization). In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit on Feb. 15 said it would use a case pending before it to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known, is "a very big deal," says Dennis D. Crouch, a patent professor at the University of Missouri School of Law. It "has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents. (第二十七题 D答案对 it may change the legal practice in US)"
Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic,intelligence,offered by the two theories.
Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face (第二十八题 C答案对，change of the attitude，因为后面说联邦巡回法庭以前是很支持商业模式上的专利的，但是现在可能完全不支持了)， because it was the Federal Circuit itself that ushered in such patents with its 1998 decision in the so-called State Street Bank (STT) case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by nascent Internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions. Later, more established companies raced to add such patents to their portfolios, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch. In 2005, IBM (IBM) noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents, despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment firms armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice。
Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behaviorpatterns are largely determined by biological factors。(1990年62题)
(65) Supporters of the “nature” theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. Needless to say： They don''t believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic. On the other hand,behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences.
The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal Circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court's judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to uate is whether it should "reconsider" its State Street Bank ruling。
(66) Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.
本句的句法结构为主语、谓语加上以that引导的宾语从句，句子主干为he believes that....that从句的结构是主语"this very difficulty "加上含有情态动词的谓语"may have" 及其宾语the....advantage of forcing..., and thus enabling...。Of后面forcing和enabling组成并列结构，共同修饰advantage。并列结构的后半部分中，出现了thus enabling...，考前充分研究过往年考题的同学不难发现，这个结构和03年61题的thus subjecting...这个结构几乎完全相同，可以使用"从而"、"因而"等词来处理。。
The Federal Circuit's action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the Supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example, the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for "inventions" that are obvious. (第二十九题B答案对are often unnecessarily issued。现在美国最高法院已经收紧了颁发专利的范围，那么联邦巡回法庭也会收紧对商业模式的专利的审核)The judges on the Federal Circuit are "reacting to the anti-patent trend at the Supreme Court," says Harold C. Wegner, a patent attorney and professor at George Washington University Law School。
The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. (67) In the United States,blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some “nature”proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites.
本题中的词汇考点中绝大部分都是传统考点。句子中的compensating 曾在97年75题出现过，advantage 在90年65题中考过，force在2000年73题中考过， observation在02年62题中考过。
纵观全文，最后一个题目第三十题，作为主旨题，答案应该是 A looming threat to business-method patents
And it is imagined bymany that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared withthese processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of specialtraining. (1993年74题)
(68) Behaviorists,in contrast,say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.
26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of
Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior.
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[A] their limited value to business
[B] their connection with asset allocation
Some philosophers argue
[C] the possible restriction on their granting
that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange ofduties and entitlements. (1997年72题)
[D] the controversy over authorization
27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?
[A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions
The Greeks assumed thatthe structure of language had some connection with the process of thought,which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languagescould be。(2004年61题)
[B] It involves a very big business transaction
[C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit
[D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S。
Darwin was convinced thatthe loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possiblybe injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character。(2008年50题)
[上一页]          
28. The word “about-face” (Line 1, Para 3) most probably means
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[A] loss of good will
[B] increase of hostility
[C] change of attitude
[D] enhancement of density
29. We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents
They want to explain whywe possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors。(1990年61题)
[A] are immune to legal challenges
[B] are often unnecessarily issued
[C] lower the esteem for patent holders
Behaviorists suggest thatthe child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli whichdevelop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greaterintellectual development。(1990年64题)
[D] increase the incidence of risks
30. Which of the following would be the subject of the text?
[A] A looming threat to business-method patents
“In short,” a leaderof the new school contends, “thescientific revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and inventionand use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science ininnumerable directions。”(1994年72题)
[B] Protection for business-method patent holders
[C] A legal case regarding business-method patents
[D] A prevailing trend against business-method patents
But that, Pearson points out,is only the start of man-machine integration:“It will be the beginning of thelong process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronichuman before the end of the next century。”(2001年73题)
Text 2 参考答案 26-30题 DDCBA
The Accidental Influentials
This alone demonstrates thatthe television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlinedby statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks, noless than 50% took a loss in
Harvard Business Review 2007 02
In his best-selling book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell argues that “social epidemics” are driven in large part by the actions of a tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials, who are unusually informed, persuasive, or well connected. The idea is intuitively compelling – we think we see it happening all the time – but it doesn’t explain how ideas actually spread。
The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible-sounding but largely untested theory called the “two-step flow of communication”： Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those select people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of certain looks, brands, or neighborhoods. In many such cases, a cursory search for causes finds that some small group of people was wearing, promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people can drive trends。
In recent work, however, my colleague Peter Dodds and I have found that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. In fact, they don’t seem to be required at all。
He asserted, also, thathis power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was verylimited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeededwith mathematics。(2008年47)
Our argument stems from a simple observation about social influence: With the exception of celebrities like Oprah Winfrey – whose outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal, influence – even the most influential members of a population simply don’t interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these noncelebrity influentials who, according to the two-step-flow theory, are supposed to drive social epidemics, by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a social epidemic to occur, however, each person so affected must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs, and so on; and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example, the cascade of change won’t propagate very far or affect many people。
Building on this basic truth about interpersonal influence, Dodds and I studied the dynamics of social contagion by conducting thousands of computer simulations of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s ability to influence others and their tendency to be influenced. Our work shows that the principal requirement for what we call “global cascades”– the widespread propagation of influence through networks – is the presence not of a few influentials but, rather, of a critical mass of easily influenced people, each of whom adopts, say, a look or a brand after being exposed to a single adopting neighbor. Regardless of how influential an individual is locally, he or she can exert global influence only if this critical mass is available to propagate a chain reaction。
31.By citing the book The Tipping Point, the author intends to
He adds humbly thatperhaps he was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things whicheasily escape attention, and in observing them carefully。”(2008年49题)
[A]analyze the consequences of social epidemics
[B]discuss influentials’ function in spreading ideas
[C]exemplify people’s intuitive response to social epidemics
[D]describe the essential characteristics of influentials。
It may be said that the measure of theworth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improvingexperience, but this effect is not a part of its original motive。(2009年46题)
32.The author suggests that the “two-step-flow theory”
[A]serves as a solution to marketing problems
[B]has helped explain certain prent trends
On the whole such aconclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but only ifthe child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as theothers with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lackof relevant information which they possessed。(1992年75题)
[C]has won support from influentials
[D]requires solid evidence for its validity
33.what the researchers have observed recently shows that
but we have at least drawnnear the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter ofintrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage tous。(2010年47题)
[A] the power of influential goes with social interactions
[B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media
[C] influentials have more channels to reach the public
[D] most celebrities enjoy wide media attention
34.The underlined phrase “these people”in paragraph 4 refers to the ones who
[A] stay outside the network of social influence
[B] have little contact with the source of influence
[C] are influenced and then influence others
[D] are influenced by the initial influential
35.what is the essential element in the dynamics of social influence?
[A]The eagerness to be accepted
[B]The impulse to influence others
[C]The readiness to be influenced
[D]The inclination to rely on others
Text 3 参考答案 31-35题 BDACC
Banks and mark-to-market accounting
April 8th, 2009
36. Bankers complained that they were forced to
[A] follow unfavorable asset uation rules
[B]collect payments from third parties
[C]cooperate with the price managers
[D]reuate some of their assets。
37.According to the author , the rule changes of the FASB may result in
[A]the diminishing role of management
[B]the revival of the banking system
[C]the banks’long-term asset losses
[D]the weakening of its independence
38.According to Paragraph 4, McCreevy objects to the IASB’s attempt to
[A]keep away from political influences。
[B]evade the pressure from their peers。
[C]act on their own in rule-setting。
[D]take gradual measures in reform。
39.The author thinks the banks were “on the wrong planet ”in that they
[A]misinterpreted market price indicators
[B]exaggerated the real value of their assets
[C]neglected the likely existence of bad debts。
[D]denied booking losses in their sale of assets。
奥门金沙国际唯一官方网址， 40.The author’s attitude towards standard-setters is one of
Text 4 参考答案36-40题 ADCBD
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