Is Grit毅力 the Secret of Success?毅力是成功的秘诀吗？
What does it take to do really well in life? The answer, says psychologist心理学家 Angela Duckworth, is not innate talent与生俱来的天赋 but grit – something she learned the hard way艰难地
This is how UPS may fail
 When Angela Duckworth was growing up, her dad often applied the word genius to his daughter. He did it at random moments在任意时刻, over dinner, watching TV or reading the newspaper, and the sentence was always the same: “You’re no genius天才!” Duckworth’s older sister and brother got it too. For Duckworth’s mother, an artist, the disparagement轻视 was adjusted to fit: “You’re no Picasso毕加索!”This approach to raising children seems inauspicious不幸的 but, in a funny way, it has worked pretty well. Duckworth, now 45, doesn’t recall how she answered her father, but her book Grit is her considered经过深思熟虑的 reply.
 Subtitled有副标题的 The Power of Passion and Perseverance（热爱和坚持的力量）, the text is the fruit of years studying the psychology of success. Swimmers, chefs, army cadets军队学员, telesales executives电话销售人员 … Duckworth examines them all, and what she finds is that natural talent天赋 – the genius prized by her father – does not make humans disposed to使 succeed so much as the qualities she sums up as “grit”. These include the commitment承诺 to finish what you start, to rise from setbacks从挫折中崛起, to want to improve and succeed, and to undertake sustained 持续的and sometimes unpleasant practice in order to do so. She calls the people whose inspiring tales she recounts叙述 “grit paragons毅力典范”. But the most persuasive能说服的 grit paragon, the one whose story is implicit暗示的 rather than directly told – the book is social science not memoir自传 – is Duckworth herself.
 Every family has its funny sayings语录, the private lore and logic民间传说与逻辑 that its members must negotiate协商. “At one level, you’re a kid and you accept it,” she says of her father’s sniping抨击, but she did register记录 an emotional reaction: a silent, internal clench内部握紧. “Instead of feeling discouraged, I felt the opposite.” Her voice brightens. “I had the sort of … I’ll show you … response.” The reaction has been Duckworth’s life’s work. She went to Harvard, where she founded a nonprofit非营利的 summer school for low-income middle-school pupils. She left Harvard with the Fay prize for best female student, passed McKinsey’s麦肯锡 notorious声名狼藉的 selection process before swerving to转向 teaching – “Couldn’t you at least be a senator参议员?” her dad pleaded提出 – and from there research psychology, and Character Lab, a nonprofit she co-founded to advance the science and practice of character development个性发展.
Before the story, I’m going to summarize what’s going to happen in next
5 mins as you read: I’m a regular UPS customer, and this is a story
written with rage after a horrible and almost ridiculous experience with
UPS. And it’s directed copied from my 1streview on
Note that, this is specifically against a UPS office at Watertown MA(76 Arlington St, Watertown, MA 02472). The purpose is to raise some attention and let people know:
How UPS could possibly beat your worst customer experience record. What can be worse?
 All along, she challenged her father, who worked as a chemist at Dupont. She recalls an argument, when she was 17, about the meaning of life. “I said, ‘I think the meaning of life is to be happy我认为生活的意义在于幸福.’ He looked at me surprised and puzzled. He said, ‘Why would you want to be happy? I want to be accomplished.’” Duckworth claims “a rebellious streak一个叛逆的性格”, but hers is not a classic tale of rebellion反叛. It’s much smarter than that. She has scientifically dismantled废除 取消 her father’s premise前提, his coveting垂涎 of genius, by proving the idea itself to be mistaken. And she has done it all while achieving everything – and more – he could have hoped for. Three years ago, she won a MacArthur fellowship麦克阿瑟奖学金/天才奖, commonly known as “the genius grant” – thereby因此 proving him wrong on his terms按照他自己的主张 and hers.
I hope you enjoy the story.
 Or did she? Is it possible that her father’s relentless残酷的 disparagement 轻视instilled in灌输 Duckworth the impetus动力 to succeed? “That is an excellent question,” she says, and immediately begins to improve it. “I mean, the question is, would I have done so well – so far as I’ve done – if my dad was just, like, ‘You’re great’!” She replies that she cannot know the answer, she can only reason. “I do think that whatever ambition I may have had 金沙网址，natively天然地 was amplified增强 放大 by my father’s clear valuing of it. I knew that was what my dad really cared about.”
Wish to mark -1 star. Avoid them.Absolutely horrible experience: irresponsible and unqualified driver, who lied and played trick to refuse customers.
Part III Listening Comprehension
 It is tempting to think人们很容易认为 that Duckworth’s father – her parents were Chinese immigrants – used criticism to motivate激发 his children. But Duckworth laughs at this idea. “Oh my God, my dad, I just don’t think he thought about it. My dad was not super-intentional超故意 in his parenting. He was very self-absorbed热衷于自己想法的. I won’t say mean or selfish per se本身, but very self-absorbed. I think he was just thinking out loud自言自语.” She came to understand “you’re no genius” as a self-rebuke责难. “He was thinking about the fact that he never won a Nobel prize in chemistry, which is hard to win when you’re really working on car paint refinishing车漆修补. When I was little, he was still climbing up the corporate ladder公司晋升制度 and he wasn’t the man he wanted to be. And so he, I think, was feeling this inadequacy 不胜任 缺点which he projected on to his children. You know: you’re no genius, you’re no nobel laureate诺贝尔经济学奖得主.” She always knew her parents loved her.
We scheduled pickup for 3 large boxes on Monday. The contact lady said we can’t pick up at 8:30PM (though selected online), and she promised the driver to come at 6PM.
 This year her father turns 84. He has Parkinson’s disease and lives with Duckworth’s mother in an assisted living facility疗养院, a 45-minute trip from Duckworth’s home in Philadelphia. It was there that Duckworth drove when she finished the book. “He likes to look outside, so I wheeled him to a window.” Feeling a little afraid, she drew up a chair next to him, and opened Grit. Over several visits, she read and read, pausing to give her father a sip of一口 water or if he fell asleep. “He seemed to be listening,” she says. Didn’t he say anything? Well, she says, now and then she asked what he thought and, “He sort of said ‘wonderful’.” But there is a hole有缺陷的 in her comprehension理解, a rare moment of inarticulacy拙于辞令. “I’m not 100% sure he’s saying that because he knows exactly what I said or because he remembers that this is the sort of thing you say,” she admits. Then she says, “He may even have uttered发出 ‘it’s wonderful’.”
Here comes the exciting part: I get the boxes ready at 4PM, and waited till 8:30PM. Nobody came. The next day, I waited. Nobody came. WORSE: I checked status online, the driver marked :”PICKED UP PACKAGE SUCCESSFULLY”.
 I am confused as to至于 关于 whether he said “wonderful” or not. By now, their relationship feels like a long conflict, and this – the reading – is the final frontier边界. So it really matters. The next day I email Duckworth to check and she replies that she is “not entirely sure”. She thinks he said it – the asterisks星号 are hers and might indicate strength of thought, or simply emphasise that this is only a thought. Ever the scientist, she adds, “I didn’t video or audio tape reading it to him.”
We called again, for over 5 times to this Watertown UPS location. No response during the day. We called UPS official customer service to file complain. Then, the Watertown office lady calls back, forced by their supervisors.
Since I started working part-time at a grocery store, I have learned that a customer is more than someone who buy something. To me, a customer is a person whose memory fails entirely once he or she starts to push a shopping card. One of the first things customers forget is how to count. There is no other way to explain how so many people get in their express line, which is clearly marked 15 items or less, with 20, 25 or even a cart load of items. Customers also forget why they came to the store in the first place. Just as I finish ringing up an order, a customer will say, “Oops, I forgot to pick up a fresh loaf of bread. I hope you don’t mind waiting while I go get it。” Five minutes later, he’s back with the bread, a bottle of milk, and three rolls of paper towels. Strange is that seems customers also seem to forget that they have to pay for their groceries. Instead of writing a check or looking for a credit card while I am ringing up the groceries, my customers will wait until I announce the total. Then, in surprise, she says, “Oh no, what did I do with my check book?” After 5 minutes of digging through her purse, she borrows my pen because she’s forgotten hers. But I have to be tolerant of customers because they pay my salary, and that’s something I can’t afford to forget。
 It is odd奇怪的 to picture Duckworth, mild-mannered温柔的 and sweet, sitting next to her father – “his own daughter telling him things that are not altogether完全地 complimentary恭维的 赞美的”. But there was some closure结束 终止 for her, she says. “The one thing my dad has always been is brutally残忍地 honest.” She gives a small laugh. “Or let’s say unedited未编辑的.” His honesty brought advantages: as a child, Duckworth “always felt she knew him” and even though her mother was a saint圣人, and “growing up you would think I should be super close to her … Strangely I felt closer to my dad.” It was his honesty that gave her the courage to read to him. As she says, “I’m still my father’s daughter.”
Finally we scheduled a again at Wed. night 6PM. We specifically said: we need help to move the boxes, it’s on 3rd floor and they agreed. At least, we hope the driver to bring the lifting tools.
Q26. What does the speaker say about customers’ entering the grocery A scientific team is studying the thinking ability of eleven and half month old children. The test is a simple one. The baby watches a sort of show on a small stage. In Act One of the show, a yellow cube is lifted from a blue box, and moved across the stage. Then it is returned to the box. This is repeated 6 times. Act Two is similar except that the yellow cube is smaller. Baby boys do not react at all to the difference and the size of the cube. But girls immediately become excited. The scientists interpret the girls’ excitement as meaning they are trying to understand what they have just seen. They are wondering why Act Two is odd and how it differs from Act One. In other words, the little girls are reasoning. This experiment certainly does not definitely prove that girls start to reason before boys, but it provides a clue that scientists would like to study more carefully. Already it is known that bones, muscles and nerves develop faster in baby girls. Perhaps it is early nerve development that makes some infant girls show more intelligence than infant boys. Scientists have also found that nature seems to give another boost to girls. Baby girls usually talk at an earlier age than boys do. Scientists think that there is a physical reason for this. They believe that the nerve endings in the left side of the brain develop faster in girls than in boys, and it is this side of the brain that strongly influences an individual’s ability to use language and remember things。
 Duckworth is a mother as well as a daughter, and in their house, Amanda, 15, and Lucy, 14, hear a lot about grit. “I have gotten the complaint that I talk about grit all the time,” Duckworth says.Maybe the word will function起作用 for them as genius did for Duckworth, and provoke a quiet, internal rebellion内部反叛. “Hmm. ‘I’m going to be mediocre普通的 just to show you’,” she muses沉思. “I can imagine that might happen, but neither of my girls are all that rebellious, thank God.” The nearest either comes in the book is when Lucy, then four, tries to open a box of raisins葡萄干. It’s too difficult and she walks away. Duckworth tells her to try again. Lucy declines拒绝.
HERE IT COMES: the driver pressed the door bell at 5:45PM, and refused to come to upstairs. I had the feeling that he attempted to leave; same moment, he already reported to his supervisor that the customer is not at home (another lie), just in 60 secs! I ran down to 1st floor, because he refuse to speak via door bell or call me.
Q26. What is the difference between Act One and Act Two in the test?
 “I don’t know if it was rebellion,” Duckworth says. “But she had a pronounced 明显的aversion厌恶 to things that were hard.” She describes another time, when Lucy was at maths club. “Watching her through the crack of a door, doing these worksheets学习单. She really didn’t like effort努力. By the way, most animals don’t like effort.” Eyeing盯着 the raisin box, peeping through透过……向里看 a crack in the door – what a watchful 注意的 警惕的parent Duckworth is. “I was observing them from the get-go从一开始,” she says. She mentions the marshmallow test棉花糖实验, which looks at delayed gratification延迟享乐. “I did all those things. I was studying them but I was also trying to raise them.”
Alright, he started yelling at me, “where is the package, you have to
bring it to downstairs”. I explained that we’ve scheduled online, and
need help to move, all agreed on the phone call to the office lady. No,
he refused: “I’m not going to upstairs. I’m leaving. Leave it at the
entrance door and I’ll pick up tomorrow”.
Now I understand what’s happening: He did not want to pick up anything at all, lied on Monday saying package is picked up. He just didn’t want to press the door bell, didn’t want to call, and he just want avoid the job, right now right here. But I caught him.
Q27. How do the scientists interpret their observation from the experiment?
 To avoid some of the mistakes of her own upbringing, Duckworth teaches her children grit. With her husband, Jason, she has developed “the Hard Thing rule”. Each family member must choose a discipline纪律 – for Jason and Duckworth their work, for the girls an interest – and apply themselves to it. No one may quit until the activity has run its course.To anyone who has tried to persuade children to attend a club against their will, that rule itself sounds like a Hard Thing. Does Duckworth find it difficult to navigate between her belief that a child should persist at a task and the child’s right to choose? “It’s not like we haven’t had fights and tears about ‘I hate this’ and ‘I don’t want to do it’,” she says. Occasionally Duckworth shoots back: “Fine! If you’re not going to practise then I think we should just call it quits!”
I said it’s not safe to leave the 3 boxes at entrance door.
Q28. What does the speaker say about the experiment?
 But neither daughter has capitalised利用 on these outbursts爆发 to liberate themselves from their obligations义务. “In these tough moments, they have never said, ‘OK, I’m done.’ I don’t want to take credit for it necessarily because maybe they would have been like that without me saying these things, studying these things, but they really are learning to do things and they are learning to do them well, and they are learning to struggle a bit, and they are learning to have bad days and wake up the next day. I would be surprised if my girls ended up as women without grit. I really would.”
He called the office lady and started complaining, saying to her ‘you made my day, blah blah …’. I was offended by this attitude and the way he is humiliating the customer. He find all kinds of excuses just trying to leave, and he sounded like it’s the customer’s mistake.
Q29. According to scientists, what is another advantage given to girls by nature?
 If her father is unedited, Duckworth is the opposite. Her most overused phrase is “I will say that …” as if what she voices is the result of a private, mental conference. And while the concept of genius doesn’t figure much in her life, she occasionally experiences “a marvelling, awestruck” sensation. It can happen when she hears Adele singing. But never in regard to her daughters.
The office lady just said, “we are not moving company, we don’t go upstairs”. What about when you agreed on the phone this morning!?Hey, UPS, why do you give the option online and allow to explaining the situation?
 “No,” she says firmly. Though she is “not afraid to say things”. Lucy, for instance, was up till after 11pm last night trying to make flour for macaroons. “I won’t hesitate to say, ‘That’s incredible to me how interested you are in baking,’” Duckworth says. “But I think the thing that’s most useful to emphasise is this admiration for an interest and an admiration for the things they have done.” Occasionally, she tells her daughters, “You really have a knack for this!” The praise is so moderated it feels a little faint. Maybe life in a gritty house can be tough. “I get tired,” she says. “Striving is exhausting. Sometimes I do say things like ‘I wish I were not quite this driven to be excellent.’ It’s not a comfortable life. It’s not relaxed. I’m not relaxed as a person. I mean, I’m not unhappy. But … it’s the opposite of being comfortable.” “Not unhappy” – the phrase brings to mind Duckworth’s conversation with her father at 17, when she argued for happiness, he for accomplishment. If he was not the man he wanted to be, it is irresistible to wonder if she is the woman she wants to be. But the point of grit, true grit, is that no one ever gets there.
Alright, shipping package is more important, so I said, do you have the
lifting tools that I can borrow? I asked because once a UPS delivery guy
from Andover MA helped me quite well, and of course that guy has the
tools for lifting boxes.
NO, he said no, and he said he didn’t have any tools ever on his truck. He sounds like “What are you talking about lifting tools!?”
I was shocked.The office lady again, says coming back tomorrow. I’m angry and offended. I said, alright, I’ll move it now, “do you have 15 minutes to wait for me here?”
A super attendant of the city municipal building, Dillia Adorno, was responsible for presenting its new security plan to the public. City employees, citizens and reporters gathered in the hall to hear her describe the plan. After outlining the main points she would cover, she assured the audience that she would be happy to answer questions at the end of her presentation. Dillia realized the plan was expensive and potentially controversial. So she was not surprised to see a number of hands go up as soon as she finished speaking. An employ asked, “Would the new system create long lines to get into the building like the line in the airport security checks?” Dillia had anticipated this question and had an answer ready. After repeating the question, she explained that the sufficient number of security guards would be working at peak hours to speed things along. The next question was more confrontational。”Where was the money come from to pay for all of this?”The journalists who ask the question seem hostile. But Dillia was careful not to adopt the defensive tone. She stated that the money would come from the city’s general budget. “I know these are tide times”， she added, “But everyone agrees on the importance of safe guarding our employees and members of the public who come into the building。” Near the end of the 25 minutes she has said, Dillia said she would take two more questions. When those were finished, she concluded the session with a brief restatement of how the new system will improve security and peace of mind in the municipal building。
The guy, again, looks like I’m going to steal his $15,000 of money and he’s going to refuse. There is no way to deal business with these guys from UPS Watertown MA.
Question 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard。
Then, the office lady says he’s scheduled to be here at 6PM to pick up, not to wait, blah blah …
30. What is the focus of Dillia Adorno’s presentation?
Here we go, I caught this line and I’m going to defend my right and sort this out:”Now it’s 5:50pm, and I still have 10 minutes. How about this? I use my 10 minutes, and you just stand here and watch!”
31. What question had Dillia Adorno anticipated?
The guy is speechless. For a moment, I can feel that he knows I’m angry and he’s completely at a wrong position so he didn’t say anything. I confirmed about this and went upstairs. Then, in 7 mins, I moved 3 boxes to downstairs, wrote all tracking number on the boxes.
32. What did the speakers think of the question from the journalist?
MORE dramatic part: UPS usually measures the weight of the boxes the give a exact price at pickup. This guy, didn’t say anything and is going to drive away. I went outside, and was hoping to at least sign some paper work.
He turned around, and I can remember his face for a while, and said with terrified tone: “What are you following me for!?”
Despite unemployment and the lost of her home, Andrea Clark considers herself a blessed and happy woman. Why the cheerful attitude? Her troubles have brought her closer to her family. Last year, Andrea’s husband, Rick, a miner in Nevada was laid off. Though Andrea kept her job as a school bus driver, she knew that they couldn’t pay their bill and support their youngest of five children, Zack, age nine, on one income. “At first their church helped out, but you can’t keep that up forever”， Andrea says. Then Michal, their eldest of her four adult children suggested they move in with his family. For almost three months, seven Clarks lived under one roof. Andrea, Rick and Zack stayed in the basement department, sharing laundry and single bathroom with Michal, his wife and their two children。
OMG. Is this how you treat your customer??? You truly made a new record on my UPS experience.
The change cut their expenditures in half, but the new living arrangement proved too challenging. When Andrea found a job with a school district closer to her mother’s home in west Jorden, Utah, the family decided to move on. Packing up again with no picnic, Zack had to switch schools for the second time and space is even tighter. Andrea says that the moves themselves are exhausting and Rick is still looking for a job。
You don’t say anything about the packages and didn’t even say ‘you are all set’, and just questioned the customer, sounding like I’m going to hit you on the face.Yes, I am quite angry at the moment, but I’m not stupid.
The recession has certainly come with more problems than Andrea anticipated, but she remains unfailingly optimistic. She is excited to spend more time with her mother. Another plus, rents are lower in Utah than in Nevada. So Andrea thinks they’ll be able to save up and move out in less than 6 months。
I hope the driver was just having bad day or bad week, and could be nicer next time. I’m not saying bad words about any specific person, but dude, this is not how you treating your customer.
QUESTIONS 33-35 ARE BASED ON THE PASSAGE YOU HAVE JUST HEARD。
Maybe UPS rules are different from place to place.1. I respect the rules not moving boxes for customer, but at least, you can carry a lifting tool, especially given 3 days to prepare (because they lied about 1st schedule on Monday so they know the situation). 2. Even you refuse to be helpful, but you SHOULD NOT, EVER, lie to the customer and avoid the scheduled job.
Q33 What do we learn about Andrea’s husband?
I hope their service could improve.
Q34 Why did Andrea move to live in her eldest son’s home?
After the event, I started thinking:
—** Am I setting the bar too high nowadays for UPS?**
— Are they just contractors doing UPS service, but not necessarily caring about the company image?
— Maybe they are not getting extra money for job like pickup, so they would do whatever possible to avoid the job?
— Do bad UPS driver really get offended or beat up by angry customer, so he was scared of me approaching? Even though he’s way stronger than I am.
Q35 What is Andrea’s attitude toward the hardships brought by the economic recession?
I had too many good experience with other customer services and today UPS just beat the worst experience record. Maybe I was spoiled.
Sad thing is, they might keep doing these because UPS management may never see this post or the reviews on Yelp. Basically, given 1.5 star for this UPS location and still doing shitty job like this, it proves that they will hardly ever become better, not in the days I’m around here.
Part III Listening Comprehension
But this is how UPS may fail. You are losing a loyal customer and the word spreads.
W: I don’t know what to do. I can’t seem to get anyone in the hospital to listen to my complaints and this outdated equipment is dangerous. Just look at it。
M: Hmm, uh, are you trying to say that it presents a health hazard?
W: Yes, I am. The head technician in the lab tried to persuade the hospital administration to replace it, but they are trying to cut costs。
M: You are pregnant, aren’t you?
W: Yes, I am. I made an effort to get my supervisor to transfer me to another department, but he urged me not to complain too loudly. Because the administration is more likely to replace me than an X-ray equipment, I’m afraid to refuse to work. But I’m more afraid to expose my unborn child to the radiation。
M: I see what you mean. Well, as your union representative, I have to warn you that it would take quite a while to force management to replace the old machines and attempt to get you transferred may or may not be successful。
W: Oh, what am I supposed to do then?
M: Workers have the legal right to refuse certain unsafe work assignments under two federal laws, the Occupation or Safety and Health Act and the National Labor Relations Act. But the requirements of either of the Acts may be difficult to meet。
W: Do you think I have a good case?
M: If you do lose your job, the union will fight to get it back for you along with back pay, your lost income. But you have to be prepared for a long wait, maybe after two years。
Q19. What does the woman complain about?
Q20. What has the woman asked her supervisor to do?
Q21. What does the man say about the two federal laws?
Q22. What will the union do if the woman loses her job
W: Mr. Green, is it fair to say that negotiation is an art?
M: Well, I think it’s both an art and science. You can prepare for a negotiation quite scientifically, but the execution of the negotiation has quite a lot to do with one’s artistic quality. The scientific part of a negotiation is in determining your strategy. What do you want out of it? What can you give? Then of course there are tactics. How do you go about it? Do you take an opening position in a negotiation which differs from the eventual goal you are heading for? And then of course there are the behavioral aspects。
W: What do you mean by the behavioral aspects?
M: Well, that’s I think where the art comes in. In your behavior, you can either be an actor. You can pretend that you don’t like things which you are actually quite pleased about. Or you can pretend to like things which you are quite happy to do without. Or you can be the honest type negotiator who’s known to his partners in negotiation and always plays everything straight. But the artistic part of negotiation I think has to do with responding immediately to cues one gets in the process of negotiation. These can be verbal cues or even body language. This is where the artistic quality comes in。
W: So really, you see two types of negotiator then, the actor or the honest one。
M: That’ right. And both can work. I would say the honest negotiator can be quite effective in some circumstances. In other circumstances you need an actor。
Q23. When is a scientific approach best embodied in a negotiation according to the man?
Q24. In what way is a negotiator like an actor according to the man?
Q25. What does the man say about the two types of negotiator?
Mountain climbing is becoming a popular sport, but it is also a potentially dangerous one. People can fall. They may also become ill. One of the most common dangers to climbers is altitude sickness, which can affect even very experienced climbers. Altitude sickness usually begins when a climber goes above 8,000 to 9,000 feet. The higher one climbs, the less oxygen there is in the air. When people don’t get enough oxygen, they often begin to gasp for air. They may also feel dizzy and light-headed. Besides these symptoms of altitude sickness, others such as headache and fatigue may also occur. At heights of over 18,000 feet, people may be climbing in a constant daze. Their state of mind can have adverse affect on their judgment. A few precautions can help most climbers avoid altitude sickness. The first is not to go too high, too fast. If you climb to 10,000 feet, stay at that height for a day or two. Your body needs to get used to a high altitude before you climb to a even higher one. Or if you do climb higher sooner, come back down to a lower height when you sleep. Also, drink plenty of liquids and avoid tobacco and alcohol. When you reach your top height, do like activities rather than sleep too much. You breathe less when you sleep, so you get less oxygen. The most important warning is this: if you have severe symptoms, then don’t go away, go down. Don’t risk injury or death because of over-confidence or lack of knowledge。