The true authorship of “Mary’s Little Lamb” is disputed。 According to the New England Historical Society， Hale wrote only part of the poem， but claimed authorship。 The poem was included in Hale’s book Poems for our Children， which she intended “to inculcate moral truths and virtuous sentiments” to families and children。
48。 What do we learn about “Project Neurice”？
She never tried to follow up her first successful book. Though opinions vary(many people dispute with it), the book rose above censure to become an American icon(Encyclopedia, n.pg). She is Nelle Harper Lee, the person who thinks about humanity under American slavery and wrote the book, To Kill a Mockingbird.
Everywhere that Sarah Josepha Hale went， success was sure to go
38。 Students should be told that risk XXX classroom can be something positive。
"'I'm not disputing this is great literature,' said the concerned mother of a pupil exposed to The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and To Kill a Mockingbird." National Review, 31 Dec. 2016, p. 12. Opposing Viewpoints In Context, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?
Known as much for its fashion plates and dress patterns as its uplifting poetry and edifying articles， the magazine was in print for another 70 years。 Hale herself was at its helm for 40—enough time to become the most influential arbiter of fashion， culture and American female taste of her time。 She used her influence not just to tell women what to wear， but how to think。
B） It will invade other rice-growing regions of Europe。
4,500 — The average number of calories you might consume on Thanksgiving, according to the Calorie Control Council. That’s 3,000 for the meal, and another 1,500 for snacking and nibbling.
While small defects cannot obscure great virtues, Lee's reputation even has grown since the debut of her remarkable novel(Encyclopedia, P287). To Kill a Mockingbird reflects her concern about the slavery, racism and understanding of prejudice and guilt. She seems to suggest that children have a natural instinct for tolerance and understanding; only as they grow older do they learn to react to differences with fear and disdain. It really affects a great number of people.
She fought a fierce battle to make Thanksgiving a national holiday
K。 Yet our schools focus primarily on students as individual entities。 What would happen if educators instead took advantage of the fact that teens are powerfully compelled to think in social terms？ In Social， Lieberman lays out a number of ways to do so。 History and English could be presented through the lens of the psychological drives of the people involved。 One could therefore present Napoleon in terms of his desire to impress or Churchill in terms of his lonely melancholy。 Less inherently interpersonal subjects， such as math， could acquire a social aspect through team problem solving and peer tutoring。 Research shows that when we absorb information in order to teach it to someone else， we learn it more accurately and deeply， perhaps in part because we are engaging our social cognition。
"To Kill a Mockingbird." Novels for Students, edited by Diane Telgen, vol. 2, Gale, 1997, pp. 285-307. Gale Virtual Reference Library, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?
Her nursery rhyme was inspired by actual events
44。 When we absorb information for the purpose of imparting it to ethers， we do so with greater secretary and depth。
65 — Percentage of Americans surveyed who said eating Thanksgiving leftovers is more important than eating their regular Thanksgiving meal.
Many people praise her a lot, though the latter result was hardly a leap from obscurity. "In her first novel, Harper Lee writes with gentle affection, rich humor and deep understanding of small-town family life in Alabama," wrote Frank H.Lyell in the New York Times Book Review. Truman Capote raved to George Plimpton of the New York Times Book Review that Lee was "a gifted woman, courageous, and with a warmth that instantly kindles most people, however suspicious or dour."
She once preserved a Boston monument with an epic craft fair
B。 In a 2005 study， psychologist Laurence Steinberg of Temple University and his co-author， psychologist Margo Gardner， then at Temple， divided 306 people into three age groups： young adolescents， with a mean age of 14； older adolescents， with a mean age of 19； and adults， aged 24 and older。 Subjects played a computerized driving game in which the player must avoid crashing into a wall that materializes， without warning， on the roadway。 Steinberg and Gardner randomly assigned some participants to play alone or with two same-age peers looking on。
2 — The ranking of Thanksgiving on the list of America’s favorite holidays. Christmas is No. 1.
39。 The XXX a mate and getting married accounts for adolescents’ greater attention to social interactions。
As a result, she wrote down To Kill a Mockingbird which contains her thinking of prejudice and tolerance, guilt and innocence. In the book when the children receive guns for Christmas, Atticus tells them it is all right to shoot at blue jays, but "it's sin to kill a mockingbird". As Miss Maudie explains, it would thoughtlessly cruel to kill innocent creatures that "don't do one thing but music for us to enjoy."(Telgen, P295) From human appeared, this kind of topics never stop arguing. To Kill a Mockingbird is an essence and revivification base on reality. It becomes southerners in the 1960s objected to its portrayal of white people and leads teenagers learn more about that period.
Forget Oprah—in the 19th century， there was one queen of media， and her name was Sarah Josepha Hale。 She first plunged into national prominence as one of the nation’s first published women novelists and poets。 Her book Northwood： Or， Life North and South advocated that slaves be relocated to Liberia rather than continue to toil in the U.S。 It attracted the attention of a Boston reverend who invited the recently widowed Hale to edit the Ladies’ Magazine， a new magazine aimed at fashionable women。
"Harper Lee." Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed., vol. 20, Gale, 2004, pp. 220-222. PowerSearch, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?
The magazine juggernaut that Hale helmed impressed similar values on women， emphasizing the importance of a separate sphere in which women could reign over domestic issues and affect the behaviors of others through their own deportment。 But though Hale’s magazine reinforced gender stereotypes， historians have argued that the “separate sphere” it upheld was actually a place where women could experience what little power and autonomy was available to them during the 19th century。
43。 The presence of peer intensifies the feeling of rewards in teens’ brains。
5-5.5 — The number of hours it takes to cook a stuffed 22- to 24-pound turkey in an oven set to 325 degrees Fahrenheit.
When Lee began composing To Kill a Mockingbird, the years 1933 to 1935 took place Great Depression and racial tensions were running high in the South as a whole, especially in Alabama. The Scottsboro incident happened there in 1931. Nine young black men, falsely accused of raping two white women on board a train. Then eight sentenced to death, the youngest at age 13, to life imprisonment. It sparked a mass defense movement. Lee is said to have been influenced greatly by it. (Telgen, P295)
Five Fascinating Details About the Media Mogul Who May Have Written “Mary Had a Little Lamb”
D） It tries to kill the snails with the help of climate change。
In contract, some reviewers considered the book's ending to be overly dramatic and unnecessarily violent and as Lee depicted American society under slavery, they wanted to ban it to students. A concerned mother of a pupil exposed, "I'm not disputing this is great literature. But there is so much racial slurs in there and offensive wording that you can't get past that, and right now we are nation divided as it is." (National Review, n.pg) Moreover, others questioned the accuracy of the narrator's voice, the young Scout. "The praise Miss Lee deserves must be qualified somewhat by noting that oftentimes expository style has a processed, homogenized, impersonal flatness quite out of keeping with the narrator's gay, impulsive approach to life in youth," Lyell wrote.(Encyclopedia, n.pg)
She was one of America’s most powerful media moguls。。。
205 million — The number of turkeys raised in the United States in 2013.
Actually, she can write To Kill a Mockingbird is deeply related to her growing environment and personality. Lee was born at April 28, 1926 in a small town. She enjoyed reading Jane Austen, Charles Lamb, and Robert Louis Stevenson. However, she was only able to go to a communiversity at first. Then she went to the University of Alabama of law at Tuscallosa in 1947. Surprisedly, She left the University of Alabama six months short of completing her law degree, although she later was awarded an honorary degree by that institution. After that, Lee traveled to England as an exchange student Oxford University. Through her experience of her education, we can figure out a persist earnest girl, realize herself depending on effort. She was not a talent, just always in progress.(Encyclopedia, P220)
C） It multiplies at a speed beyond human imagination。
This book completed in 1959 and published in 1960. Then it won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1961. It was also made into an Oscar-winning film in 1962. Otherwise, she published another book "Go Set a Watchman" which was written before "To Kill a Mockingbird" and portrays the later lives of the character. But it did not get a such success like "To Kill a Mockingbird". (Encyclopedia, P287)
By Erin Blakemore
Located on the Mediterranean just two hours south of Barcelona， the Ebro Delta produces 120 million kilograms of rice a year， making it one of the continent’s most important rice-growing areas。 As the sea creeps into these freshwater marshes， however， rising salinity （盐分） is hampering rice production。 At the same time， this sea-water also kills off the greedy giant apple snail， an introduced pest that feeds on young rice plants。 The most promising strategy has become to harness one foe against the other。
Did Sarah Josepha Hale write “Mary’s Little Lamb，” the eternal nursery rhyme （儿歌） about girl named Mary with a stubborn lamb？ This is still disputed， but it’s clear that the woman 26 for writing it was one of America’s most fascinating 27 。 In honor of the poem publication on May 24，1830， here’s more about the 28 author’s life。
In 1837， Hale’s magazine was acquired by Louis Godey， who also owned the popular Lady’s Book， and Godey’s Lady’s Book， the new publication that emerged， quickly became America’s most influential magazine。 At its height， the magazine had over 150，000 subscribers， was widely read by men and women， and featured some of the nation’s best literary talent， like Edgar Allan Poe and Harriet Beecher Stowe。
E） fierce M） supposed
May 24， 2016
C。 Older adolescents scored about 50 percent higher on an index of risky driving when their peers were in the room—and the driving of early adolescents was fully twice as reckless when other young teens were around。 In contrast， adults behaved in similar ways regardless of whether they were on their own or observed by others。 “The presence of peers makes adolescents and youth， but not adults， more likely to take risks，” Steinberg and Gardner concluded。
Did Sarah Josepha Hale write “Mary’s Lamb，” the eternal nursery rhyme about a girl named Mary with a stubborn lamb companion？ The jury is still out—but it’s clear that the woman reputed for writing it was one of America’s most fascinating characters。 In honor of the poem’s publication on May 24， 1830， here’s more about the supposed author’s life：
41。 Teenagers’ parents are often concerned XXX negative peer influence。
Though Hale’s legacy today revolves around putting turkey and mashed potatoes on tables everywhere， her interests extended to other New England icons。 In 1840， Hale organized the mother of all craft fairs at Boston’s Quincy Market。 The seven-day fair raised a whopping $30，000 to finish the building of an ornate obelisk to commemorate the Battle of Bunker Hill。 That’s the equivalent of fundraising nearly $800，000 today。
G） latter O） versatile
2 — The maximum number of days the U.S. Department of Agriculture suggests keeping a fresh turkey before cooking it.
Hale wasn’t just a writer： She was also a fierce social advocate。 Born in New Hampshire， she was particularly obsessed with an idealized idea of New England， which she associated with abundant Thanksgiving meals that she claimed had “a deep moral influence。” Using the platform provided by Godey’s Lady’s Book， she began a national campaign to have a national holiday declared that would bring families together while celebrating the glorious festivals of yore。 No matter that the first Thanksgiving was celebrated by a privileged few in a time of rampant starvation and the suppression of Native Americans—Hale wanted her Thanksgiving。 And in 1863， after 17 years of advocacy including letters to five presidents， Hale got it。 President Abraham Lincoln， embroiled in the Civil War， issued a proclamation setting aside the last Thursday in November for the holiday。
49。 What does Neurice project manager say about the giant apple snail？
46 million — The estimated number of turkeys eaten in the United States on Thanksgiving 2012.
…but Hale didn’t think women should vote。
A） It had great impact on the life of Spanish rice farmers。
Regardless of the author， it seems that the poem was inspired by a real event。 When young Mary Sawyer was followed to school by a lamb in 1816， it caused a commotion。 A bystander named John Roulstone wrote a doggerel about the events。 The verse was so popular that eventually Mary sold the lamb’s wool for a higher price based on its fame。 It earned $60， which was used to help rebuild Boston’s Old South Church。 At some point， Hale herself seems to have co-opted the verse—though， if a 1916 piece by her great-niece is to be trusted， Hale called fraud， claiming that “some other people pretended that some one else wrote [the poem]” for the rest of her life。
42。 Activating the XXX network involved in socially motivated learning and memory may XXX tap XXX mental powers。
69 — The approximate percentage of Thanksgiving Day fires caused by cooking.
Was Hale a feminist？ The term is so laden with modern meaning that it’s hard to apply to a powerful woman like Hale。 But though Hale supported everything from women’s education to employment， she though that women’s powers were intended to be used subtly。 Not only did she oppose women’s suffrage， but she thought that women were better off wielding what she called a “secret， silent influence” on men instead of entering politics on their own。
A） XXX enemy first。 B） Eliminating the enemy one by one。
151 — The number of years between October 3, 1863, when Lincoln proclaimed a national annual Thanksgiving Day, and Thanksgiving 2014.
D） features L） rest
4 — Americans celebrate Thanksgiving every year on the fourth Thursday of November.
G。 The results： Teens who played the Iowa Gambling Task under the eyes of fellow adolescents engaged in more exploratory behavior， learned faster from both positive and negative outcomes， and achieved better performance on the task than those who played in solitude。 “What our study suggests is that teenagers learn more quickly and more effectively when their peers are present than when they‘re on their own，” Steinberg says。 And this finding could have important implications for how we think about educating adolescents。
47。 What may be XXX for rice farmers to employ in flghting their enemies？
Hale wasn’t just a writer， she was also a 29 social advocate， and she was particularly 30 with an ideal New England， which she associated with abundant Thanksgiving meals that she claimed had “a deep moral influence，” she began a nationwide 31 to have a national holiday declared that would bring families together while celebrating the 32 festivals。 In 1863， after 17 years of advocacy including letters to five presidents， Hale got it。 President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War， issued a __33__ setting aside the last Thursday in November for the holiday。
As an EU-funded effort， the search for salt-tolerant varieties of rice is taking place in all three countries。 Each team is crossbreeding a local European short-grain rice with a long-grain Asian variety that carries the salt-resistant gene。 The scientists are breeding successive generations to arrive at varieties that incorporate salt tolerance but retain about 97 percent of the European rice genome （基因组）。
C） Its immediate priority is to bring the pest under control。
46。 Why does the author mention the Spanish Civil War at the beginning of the passage？
The Ebro Delta， in Spain， famous as a battleground during the Spanish Civil War， is now the setting for a different contest， one that is pitting rice farmers against two enemies： the rice-eating giant apple snail， and rising sea levels。 What happens here will have a bearing on the future of European rice production and the overall health of southern European wetlands。
46.3 million — The estimated number of Americans who will be traveling for the Thanksgiving holiday in 2014, according to AAA.
36。 It is thought probable that the human brain is particularly good at picking-up socially important information。
F） inspired N） traditional
73 — The number of years between 1941, when Congress decided that the fourth Thursday in November would be observed as Thanksgiving Day and a federal legal holiday, and Thanksgiving 2014.
D） Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are XXX as hard a time as in the war。
50 million — The approximate number of people who typically watch the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade on television.
F。 The brains of teenagers， but not adults， showed greater activity in two regions associated with rewards when they were being observed by same-age peers than when alone。 In other words， rewards are more intense for teens when they are with peers， which motivates them to pursue higher-risk experiences that might bring a big payoff （such as the thrill of just making the light before it turns red）。 But Steinberg suspected this tendency could also have its advantages。 In his latest experiment， published online in August， Steinberg and his colleagues used a computerized version of a card game called the Iowa Gambling Task to investigate how the presence of peers affects the way young people gather and apply information。
11-12 — The number of hours it takes to thaw a frozen 22- to 24-pound turkey in cold water. Compare that with the 5? to six days it takes to thaw in the refrigerator.
The true authorship of “Mary’s Little Lamb” is disputed。 According to New England Historical Society， Hale wrote only one part of the poem， but claimed authorship。 Regardless of the author， it seems that the poem was __34__by a real event。 When young Mary Sawyer was followed to school by a lamb in 1816， it caused some problems。 A bystander named John Roulstone wrote a poem about the event， then， at some point， Hale herself seems to have helped write it。 However， if a 1916 piece by her great-niece is to be trusted， Hale claimed for the __35__of her life that “Some other people pretended that someone else wrote the poem”。
393 — The number of years between 1621, when the first Thanksgiving was observed in Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Thanksgiving 2014. A good harvest led Plymouth Colony Gov. William Bradford to plan a festival to give thanks. Around 90 Native Americans attended.
A） Its goals will have to be realized at a cost。
2.5 — The number in miles of the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade available for public viewing.
L。 And although anxious parents may not welcome the notion， educators could turn adolescent recklessness to academic ends。 “Risk taking in an educational context is a vital skill that enables progress and creativity，” wrote Sarah-Jayne Blakemore， a cognitive neuroscientist at University College London， in a review published last year。 Yet， she noted， many young people are especially risk averse at school—afraid that one low test score or mediocre grade could cost them a spot at a selective university。 We should assure such students that risk， and even peer pressure， can be a good thing—as long as it happens in the classroom and not the car。
Peer Pressure Has a Positive Side
36 — The number of years it took magazine editor Sarah Josepha Hale to crusade for an annual Thanksgiving holiday. National and local days of thanksgiving had been celebrated over the years, but President Abraham Lincoln finally proclaimed the fourth Thursday in November Thanksgiving in 1863.
Directions： In this section， you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it。 Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs。 Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived。 You may choose a paragraph more than once。 Each paragraph is marked with a letter。 Answer the question by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2。
B） career J） rectified
Originally from South America， the snails were accidentally introduced into the Ebro Delta by Global Aquatic Tecnologies， a company that raised the snails for fresh-water aquariums （水族馆）， but failed to prevent their escape。 For now， the giant apple snail’s foothold in Europe is limited to the Ebro Delta。 But the snail continues its march to new territory， says Serrat。 “The question is not if it will reach other rice-growing areas of Europe， but when。”
H。 Matthew D。 Lieberman， a social cognitive neuroscientist at the University of California， Los Angeles， and author of the 2013 book Social： Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect， suspects that the human brain is especially adept at learning socially salient information。 He points to a classic 2004 study in which psychologists at Dartmouth College and Harvard University used functional MRI to track brain activity in 17 young men as they listened to descriptions of people while concentrating on either socially relevant cues （for example， trying to form an impression of a person based on the description） or more socially neutral information （such as noting the order of details in the description）。 The descriptions were the same in each condition， but people could better remember these statements when given a social motivation。
67 — The number of years between 1947, the first National Thanksgiving Turkey presentation at the White House, and Thanksgiving 2014.
“The project has two sides，” says Xavier Serrat， Neurice project manager and researcher at the University of Barcelona。 “The short-term fight against the snail， and a mid- to long-term fight against climate change。 But the snail has given the project greater urgency。”
100,000-plus — Questions typically answered by the Butterball Turkey hotline every November and December.
E。 In a 2011 study， Steinberg and his colleagues turned to functional MRI （磁共振） to investigate how the presence of peers affects the activity in the adolescent brain。 They scanned the brains of 40 teens and adults who were playing a virtual driving game designed to test whether players would brake at a yellow light or speed on through the crossroad。
92.1 million — Black Friday shoppers in 2013.
Over the next year and a half investigators will test the various strains of saline-tolerant rice they’ve concocted。 In 2018， farmers will plant the varieties with the most promise in the Ebro Delta and Europe’s other two main rice-growing regions—along the Po in Italy， and France’s Rhône。 A season in the field will help determine which， if any， of the varieties are ready for commercialization。
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage。
90 — The number of years between 1924, when the first Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade took place, and Thanksgiving 2014. It was originally called the Macy’s Christmas Parade.
A） It can survive only on southern European wetlands。
88 — The approximate percentage of Americans who eat turkey on Thanksgiving Day, according to a National Turkey Federation survey.
40。 According to Steinberg， the presence of peers increases the speed and effectiveness of teenagers’ leaning。
A） campaign I） proclamation
94 — The number of years between the first NFL Thanksgiving Day games in 1920 and Thanksgiving 2014.
C） Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are waging a battle of similar importance。
B） It is of great significance in the records of Spanish history。
B） It aims to increase the yield of Spanish rice。
A。 Parents of teenagers often view their children‘s friends with something like suspicion。 They worry that the adolescent peer group has the power to push its members into behavior that is foolish and even dangerous。 Such wariness is well founded： statistics show， for example， that a teenage driver with a same-age passenger in the car is at higher risk of a fatal crash than an adolescent driving alone or with an adult。
225 — The number of years between 1789, when President George Washington issued a proclamation naming November 26 a day of national thanksgiving, and Thanksgiving 2014.
The battle is currently being waged on land， in greenhouses at the University of Barcelona。 Scientists working under the banner “Project Neurice” are seeking varieties of rice that can withstand the increasing salinity without losing the absorbency that makes European rice ideal for traditional Spanish and Italian dishes。
Direction： There are 2 passages in this section。 Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statement。 For each of them there are four choice and our marked A），B），C） and D）。You should decide on the best choice and nark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet2 with a single line through the centre。
45。 Some experts are suggesting that we turn peer influence to good use in education。
37。 It can be concluded from experiment that the presence of peers increases risk-taking by adolescents and youth。
C） Killing two bird with one stone。 D） Using one evil to combat the other。
C） characters K） reputed
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension （40 minutes）
Directions： In this section， there is a passage with ten blanks。 You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage。 Read the passage through carefully before making your choices。 Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter。 Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre。 You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once。
J。 If humans are generally geared to recall details about one another， this pattern is probably even more powerful among teenagers who are hyperattentive to social minutiae： who is in， who is out， who likes whom， who is mad at whom。 Their penchant for social drama is not—or not only—a way of distracting themselves from their schoolwork or of driving adults crazy。 It is actually a neurological（神经的） sensitivity， initiated by hormonal changes。 Evolutionarily speaking， people in this age group are at a stage in which they can prepare to find a mate and start their own family while separating from parents and striking out on their own。 To do this successfully， their brain prompts them to think and even obsess about others。
I。 The study also found that when subjects thought about and later recalled descriptions in terms of their informational content， regions associated with factual memory， such as the medial temporal lobe， became active。 But thinking about or remembering descriptions in terms of their social meaning activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex—part of the brain‘s social network—even as traditional memory regions registered low levels of activity。 More recently， as he reported in a 2012 review， Lieberman has discovered that this region may be part of a distinct network involved in socially motivated learning and memory。 Such findings， he says， suggest that “this network can be called on to process and store the kind of information taught in school—potentially giving students access to a range of untapped mental powers。”
D） It was introduced into the rice fields on purpose。
D。 Yet in the years following the publication of this study， Steinberg began to believe that this interpretation did not capture the whole picture。 As he and other researchers examined the question of why teens were more apt to take risks in the company of other teenagers， they came to suspect that a crowd‘s influence need not always be negative。 Now some experts are proposing that we should take advantage of the teen brain’s keen sensitivity to the presence of friends and leverage it to improve education。